The Origin Indeed, only a hypocritical view will deny the fact and reality.
This is to provide further insight into the many simple and common ingredients that may still contain meat products in them without being aware of it.
Acid casein – Made from milk. Bread and cereal enrichment.
Activated carbon – Vegetable and animals (bones). Sugar processing and water purification.
Adipic acid (Hexanedioic Acid) – Synthetic, contain low amount of meat products. Processed food to impart a tart flavoring.
Adrenaline – Adrenal glands of hogs, cattle, and sheep. Medicine.
Albumen – Egg white, blood, vegetable tissues. Usually derived from egg whites. Baked goods, cakes, cookies, pastries, candies and cosmetics.
Albumin – Made from blood, eggs, cow\’s milk or vegetable To add texture or to thicken food.
Allantoin – Animals, most mammals, many plants (especially comfrey). In cosmetics, creams and lotions.
Ambergris – Whale intestines, synthetic or vegetable. Used in making perfumes and as foods flavoring.
Amino acid – Animal, vegetable, synthetic and bacterial. Supplements, baked goods, cosmetics and shampoos. It is the building block of proteins.
Amylase – Fungal, bacterial, animal (pig). Products (baked goods) where sugar comes from corn. It is an enzyme that breaks starch down to a more basic form.
Cane sugar (Sucrose) – Vegetable. Animal bones are often used as a filter while processing it. Natural sugar. Florida Crystal Sugar and Jack Frost Sugar are not processed with animal bones.
Capric acid (N-decanoic Acid) – Vegetable or animal. Ice cream, baked goods, sweets, beverages and artificial flavorings. An element in some fats used to make synthetic flavoring. red lollipops and food coloring
Caprylic Acid – Cow\’s or goat\’s milk Coconut oil, palm oils, perfumes and soaps.
Carmine (Cochineal or Carminic Acid) – Red coloring made from insects. Candies, frozen pops, bottled juice, red apple sauce, colored pasta, \”natural\” cosmetics and shampoos.
Carotene – Provitamin A. Beta Carotene Animal, plants Coloring in cosmetics and vitamin A.
Casein – Milk protein. Added to dairy products such as cottage cheese, \”non-dairy\” creamers, cream cheese, sour cream, cheese. Added to imitation and soy cheese, breads and cereals. Cosmetics and hair preparations.
Carbohydrate – Vegetable or animal (insects). Cornstarch and glucose.
Carmine – Animal (insects). Juices, dairy products, ice creams, fruit fillings, pudding and baked goods. Food coloring made from female beetles.
Clarifying agent – Animal (egg, gelatin, fish bladder), milk, mineral. Used to help filter out small particles out of liquids to make the liquid clear.
Cochineal – Animal, insects. Juices, ice cream, fruit fillings, yogurt, pudding and sweets.
Cysteine (L-cysteine) – Human hair. Bakes goods, breads, food supplements. It is an amino acid that is produced by the human body. Hair care products and creams.
Cystine (L-cystine) – Human hair, horsehair. Food supplements. It is an amino acid that is produced by the human body.
Dextrose (glucose, corn sugar) – Vegetable. Animal bones may be use to filter it.
Diglyceride – Animal (cow or hog), vegetable. Baked goods, peanut butter, chewing gum, whipped topping, sweets, drinks, ice creams and shortening. Used to mix ingredients that normally don\’t mix together, such as water and oil.
Disodium inosinate – Animal (meat or animal), vegetable, fungal. Canned vegetables, spreads, powdered soups and sauces. A flavor enhancer.
Dough Conditioner – Usually mineral, but sometimes animal, vegetable or synthetic. Helps to make dough easier to handle. Such as glyceryl monostearate, potassium bromate, locust (carob) bean gum, monocalcium sulfate, benzoyl peroxide and calcium sulfate.
Duodenum Substances – Digestive tracts of cows and pigs. Vitamin tablets and medications.
Emulsifier – Animal (cow, hog, eggs, milk), vegetable, synthetic. Processed foods, peanut butter, candies, dairy products, baked goods, soft drinks, chocolate and ice creams. It is used to keep unlike ingredients mixed together. Lecithin, mono- and diglycerides, calcium stearoyl, polysorbate and monostearate.
Enzyme – Animal (cow, hog), eggs, vegetable, fungal, or bacterial. Cheese and baked goods. Protein added to food to change it. Rennet, which is used in the process of making cheese, may be derived from either an animal or vegetarian source. Examples are rennet, papain, pectinase, lactase, trypsin, protease and lipase. Pipsins, lipases, trypsins usually come from animals.
Folic acid (pteroyl glutamic acid, folacin) – Usually synthetic or fungal. Could be animal, vegetable. Enriched food such as baked goods and macaroni. B-vitamin complex.
Fat – Animal (Cow, Hog, Pig), vegetable. Tallow, lard, soybean oil and cocoa butter.
Fatty acid – Animal (cow, pig, hog), vegetable, synthetic. Used in lipsticks, food, cosmetics, detergents and soap.
Flavor enhancer – Animal (meat or fish), vegetable. Monosodium glutamate, disodium guanylate, disodium inosiante and soy sauce. It gives food a flavor, but has little or no flavor itself.
Foaming agent – Usually animal or dairy-mineral. Sodium caseinate. Used to make food foam.
Gelatin – Hooves, cartilage, bones of animal. Jellybeans, marshmallows, yogurts, ice cream, cakes and frosted cereals. Shampoos and cosmetics, coating on pills and capsules. On photographic film. Used as a thickener.
Glucose (Dextrose) – Fruits or animal tissues. Soft drinks, frosting, candies and baked goods.
Glycerin – Glycerol Byproduct of soap manufacturing (usually is animal fat). Cosmetics, foods, toothpastes, mouthwashes, ointments, chewing gum, medicines and soaps.
Glycerides (Mono-, Di-, Tri-glycerides) – Animal fat (cow, hog), vegetable, synthetic. Processed foods, baked goods, peanut butter, jelly, ice cream, chocolate, chewing gums, candies, beverages, shortening and whipped toppings. Used to mix ingredients that normally don\’t mix together, such as water and oil. Most of them are vegetarian, but some may be animal-based.
Glycerol (Glycerin, Glycerine) – Usually vegetable, may be animal (cow, hog). Candies, baked goods, marshmallows, sweets and soft drinks. Preservative that helps retain moisture.
Guanine – Scales of fish. Shampoo, nail polish, and other cosmetics.
Invert sugar (Colorose, Inversol) – Vegetable. This sugar may be processed with cow bones. If derived from sugar beets, it is not usually processed with cow bones. Baked goods and candy. Often non-vegetarian.
Insulin – From hog pancreas. Used by millions of diabetics daily. Alternatives: synthetics, vegetarian diet and nutritional supplements, human insulin grown in a lab.
Isinglass – Fish. Alcoholic beverages (white wine and chardonnay) and some jelly deserts.
Isopropyl Palmitate – Complex mixtures of isomers of stearic acid and palmitic acid. (See Stearic Acid.)
Keratin – Usually animal (chicken, hair and nails of). What the amino acid tyrosine is often made from.
Lac-resin (shellac) – Animal (insect secretion). Candy, fruit, pills. Combined in making wax.
Lactic acid – Animal, milk. Pickles, frozen desserts, fruit preserves, candy, olives, yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut and chewing gum and foods produced by fermentation. Skin fresheners. Sometimes in beer.
Lactose (saccharum lactin) – Milk sugar from mammals. Used to sour milk, medicinal diuretics, laxatives baked goods, medicines and baby formulas.
Lactylic stearate – Salt of stearic acid from tallow. Dough conditioner.
Lanolin – Fat from sheep\’s wool. Chewing gum, cosmetics and ointments.
Lard -Fat from hog abdomens. In shaving creams, soaps, cosmetics. In baked goods, French fries, refried beans, and many other foods. Alternatives: pure vegetable fats or oils. Tortillas (sometimes), refried beans, processed foods, chewing gum, some baked goods and piecrust (sometimes). It is sometimes used in the production of maple syrup, but not usually by the larger producers.
Lanolin Oil – Glands of sheep, extracted from their wool. Skin care products, cosmetics and some medicines.
Lecithin – Phospholipids from plants, animal tissues or egg yolk. Mainly from eggs and soybeans. Usually vegetarian. Baked goods, margarine, soft drinks, chocolate, candy, cereal, vegetable oil sprays and cosmetic. Lipsticks, hand creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, medicines and eye creams. Waxy substance.
Linoleic Acid – An essential fatty acid. Cosmetics and vitamins.
Lipase – Enzyme from the tongue and stomach of animals (hog, cow), fungal. Cheese, ice cream, chocolate, cream and margarine. Used in making cheese and digestive aids.
Luetein – Yellow coloring from marigolds or egg yolks. Food coloring for processed foods.
Magnesium stearate – Animal (cow, hog) – Mineral, vegetable-mineral. Sugarless gum, candy and pills. Used as a preservative or to mix ingredients that normally don\’t mix together, such as water and oil.
Maple syrup – Vegetable but may be processed with an extremely small amount of animal (cow or hog) or with butter. This is usually now only done by traditional, smaller producers. Most larger producers use a compound from a synthetic source to reduce foaming. Pancake syrup, candy, cereal. Holsum, Spring Tree and Maple Groves do not use animal-derived products to process their maple syrup.
Methionine – Usually from egg and casein (dairy). Texturizer and for freshness in potato chips. It is an essential amino acid.
Modified starch – Vegetable. Pie filling, gravies, desserts and sauces. Corn that has been altered. Animal products are used in making oleic, which is often used in making adipic acid, which is used to alter corn to make starch.
Monoglyceride – Animal (cow or hog) fat or vegetable. Baked goods, peanut butter, chewing gum, whipped toppings, sweets, drinks, ice cream, shortening, margarines, cake mixes, candies and in cosmetics. Used to mix ingredients that normally don\’t mix together, such as water and oil.
Myristic acid (n-tetradecanoic) – Usually animal (cow or sheep). Processed foods, baked goods, ice cream, candy, cocoa flavoring, butter, chocolate, gelatin desserts and butterscotch. Component of fats used in food.
Natural coloring – Usually vegetable. Animal (insects). Processed foods, baked goods, beverages, candy, cereal, ice cream, pasta, dry mixes, margarine.
Natural flavoring – Vegetables, animal (meat, fish, eggs, milk). Processed foods, baked goods, drinks, salad dressing and cereals. An additive to give flavoring to food.
Nutritive sweetener – Vegetable, animal (insect), synthetic. Sucrose, molasses, aspartame, dextrose, corn syrup, fructose and honey. Sweeteners that have more than two calories per gram.
Oleic acid (oleinic acid) – Animal tallow, vegetable fats and oils. Cheese, candy, synthetic butter, beverages, baked goods, ice cream, vegetable fats, oils, soaps, lipsticks, cosmetics and nail polish. Fats that bind or flavor food.
Olestra (Sucrose polyester, Olean) – Vegetable, synthetic. Often gotten from inedible tallow. Tortilla chips, potato chips, cheese puffs, crackers, lipsticks, nail polish, , creams The sucrose used to process it may be filtered by cow bones. A fat substitute. Derivatives: Oleyl Oleate, Oleyl Stearate
Palmitic acid (n-hexadeconoic) – Animal (cow, hog fats), vegetable oils, palm oil. Usually non-vegetarian. Baked goods, cheese and butter flavoring shampoos, shaving soaps, creams. Helps ingredients that don\’t normally mix together, such as water and oil. Derivatives: Palmitate, Palmitamine,Palmitamide.
Pepsin – Hog\’s stomachs. Cheeses, vitamins. A clotting agent. Polypeptides: Obtained from slaughterhouse wastes.
Polysorbates – Derivatives of fatty acids. In cosmetics, foods.
Pepsin – Enzyme from a pig or cow stomachs. Rennet to make cheese, digestive aids and vitamins. An enzyme that helps break down proteins. A clotting agent.
Polysorbate – Animal, vegetable, synthetic. Derivatives of fatty acids. Baked goods, gelatin products, chocolate, ice cream, candy, soft drinks, nondairy creamer, salad dressing, spreads, artificial toppings, pickles and cosmetics. Used to mix ingredients that normally don\’t mix together, such as water and oil.
Processing aid – Animal (cow, hog), egg, milk, vegetable, synthetic, mineral. Sugar, juice, beer, wine. Something added to foods during processing, and then is mostly or completely removed. It can be used to get rid of unwanted flavoring or coloring or aid in filtering.
Propolis – Resinous substance that comes from bees. Supplements and found in \”natural\” toothpastes
Protease – Animal, vegetable, fungal, bacterial. Rennin, papain, lactase, pepsin, bromelain, trypsin. Dough conditioning, beer. A general term for enzymes that break down proteins.
Rennet – Animal (usually cow Enzyme from calves’ stomachs), vegetable, bacteria, molds. Cheese, custard. Rennet is used in the processing of cheese. In many soy cheese brands.
Rennin – Animal (usually cow), vegetable, bacteria, molds. Cheese, custard. Rennin is used in the processing of cheese.
Resinous Glaze – Excretion of certain insects. Candy glaze, in hair lacquer.
Simplesse – Milk, egg Ice cream, yogurt, margarine and salad dressings. Fat substitute. Egg may be used to process it.
Sodium stearoyl lactylate – Animal-mineral (cow, hog), milk, vegetable-mineral. Baked good mixes, pudding mixes, pancake mixes, instant rice, coffee whiteners, shortenings, margarine, dehydrated fruits or vegetables. Used to condition dough or to mix ingredients that normally don\’t mix together, such as water and oil.
Stearic acid (n-octadecanoic) – Animal (cow, stomachs of pigs, and sometimes from dogs and cats from animal shelters), vegetable. Food flavoring chewing gum, soaps, deodorants, creams, cosmetics and hairspray. Steroids, Sterols: Animal glands, vegetable. In creams, lotions, hair conditioners. Used in hormone preparation.
Sucrose (sugar) – Vegetable. May have been processed by using cow bone filter.
Surface-active agents (surfactants) – Such as sorbitan monostearate. Animal, vegetable, synthetic. Processed foods, cheeses, peanut butter and salad dressing. A general term for a food additive to process them.
Surface-finishing agents – Animal, vegetable, synthetic. Fruits and baked goods. Beeswax, shellac wax, gum acacia, carnauba wax and paraffin. Put on food to make it look shiny. Normally vegetarian.
Suet (Tallow) – White fat from kidneys and loins of animals. Margarine, shortening, pastries, cake mixes, cooking oils, soaps, candles, cosmetics, rubber, waxed paper and crayons.
Tallow (Suet fatty acid, Stearic Acid) – Fat from cattle, sheep, sometimes vegetable. Margarine, shortening, pastries, cake mixes, cooking oils, soaps, candles, cosmetics, rubber, waxed paper and crayons. Animal fat that is used to make baked goods more fluffy or to reduce the foam during the production of maple syrup, yeast and beet sugar.
Tyrosine (L-tyrosine) – Animal (chicken feathers). Dietary supplements, suntan products. It is an amino acid that is produced by and needed by the body.
Urea, Carbamide: Excreted from urine and body fluids. Synthetically. In hair colorings, deodorants, mouthwashes shampoos, hand creams. Browning agents for food such as pretzels. Derivatives: Imidazolidinyl Urea, Uric Acid
Vitamin A (A1, retinal) – Egg yolks, fish liver oil, vegetables, carotene in carrots, wheat germ oil, and synthetics. Supplements, \”natural\” cosmetics. Skim milk, milk, dietary infant formula, margarine, certain cheeses. Hair-dyes, cosmetics, creams, perfumes. Exist in milk, fish oil and eggs. Yellow and orange vegetables contain an ingredient that is transformed into this vitamin.
Vitamin B12 – Found in all animal products Usually animal source. synthetic form is vegan Fortified foods and supplements.
Vitamin D-3 – Vitamin D can come from fish liver oil, milk, egg yolk, etc. Vitamin D-2 can come from animal fats. Alternatives: plant and mineral sources, synthetics, completely vegetarian vitamins, exposure of skin to sunshine. Many other vitamins can come from animal sources. Examples: choline, biotin, inositol, riboflavin, etc.
Vitamin D (D1, D2, D3) – D1 is produced by human skin when exposed to the sun, animal, vegetable Usually from animals. Cosmetics, lotions, creams.
D2 (ergocalciferol) – made from yeast or plants.
D3 (cholecalciferol, calciferol) – Comes from lanolin or fish liver oil Vitamin D-3 is always from an animal source. Fortified foods and supplements. A vitamin needed for bone and teeth development.
Wax – Vegetable, animal (insect- or cow), synthetic. Put on vegetables and fruits as a protective coating. Candy, chewing gum. Usually vegetarian.
Whey – Watery liquid that separates from milk Cakes, breads, cookies, candies, crackers. In cheese-making.
* * *
Are NATURAL FLAVORS always vegetarian ????
The definition of natural flavorings and flavors from the “Code of Federal Regulations” is as follows:
“The term natural flavoring means the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrosylate, distillate, or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf, or similar plant material, MEAT, SEAFOOD, POULTRY, EGGS, dairy products, or FERMENTATION PRODUCTS thereof, whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional.”
In other words, natural flavors can be pretty much anything approved for use in food. It’s nearly impossible to tell what is in natural flavors unless the company has specified it in the label. A few of the vegetarian or vegan oriented companies are doing this now, BUT THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THE FOOD MANUFACTURERS DO NOT.
The companies actually HIDE the ingredients under the natural flavors mostly in a way of preserving the product’s identity and uniqueness.
So, what is a Vegetarian to do ?
Call the company and ask them what’s in the flavorings. It is highly unlikely that they would reveal it. But, if they do, good for you. Else look out for other brands.
Gelatin can be made from cows, pigs, fish and other animals. It is animal protein used especially for its thickening and gelling properties.
It is often used in candies, puddings, YOGHURT, marshmallows, sour cream, frozen desserts, cheese spreads, soft drinks, pill capsules and juice.
Is Kosher or Halal gelatin vegetarian?
Kosher or Halal gelatin can be made with fish and/or beef.
Is there a vegetarian gelatin ?
There are “gelatins” that are vegetable or synthetic in the market. In most cases it would be clearly mentioned. If not, buy it at your own risk.
For people who are really after gelatin……
In Pakistan and Arab countries import from China or European countries which is not halal at all. But don’t forget we eat Halal we do Halal.
BBC said that; Ethiopia drought: UK pledges £38m in food aid.
The UK has pledged £38m ($61m) in food aid to drought-hit Ethiopia – enough to feed 1.3m people for three months.
International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said the World Food Programme cash would also treat 329,000 malnourished children and mothers.
The African country faces its worst drought for a decade with an estimated 3.2m people in need of emergency aid.
The UN has called for international aid across the Horn of Africa where 10 million people are affected.
Some areas have suffered the worst drought in 60 years and the UN now classifies large areas of Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Kenya as in a crisis or an emergency.
Mr Mitchell warned that other countries across the world must give money if a full-scale disaster was to be avoided.
“Through no fault of its own, the Horn of Africa is experiencing a severe drought caused by the failed rains,” he said.
“Britain is acting quickly and decisively in Ethiopia to stop this crisis becoming a catastrophe. We will provide vital food to help 1.3 million people through the next three months.
“This situation needs an international response and Britain is calling on the international community to provide fast, effective relief.”
Oxfam welcomed the announcement and said the money could not come soon enough.
Humanitarian director Jane Cocking said: “There are already critical and life-threatening food shortages in Ethiopia and across the Horn of Africa region.
“Two successive poor rains have left millions of people struggling to get food as hundreds of thousands of livestock have died and crops have failed.
“Other donors now need to follow suit and increase funding before it is too late.”
UN humanitarian affairs chief, Baroness Amos, urged the world’s nations to channel aid to the Horn of Africa where she said agencies were seeing more and more malnourished children and adults.
“In the drought-affected areas we now have 10 million people who are affected,” she told BBC Radio 4’s The World This Weekend programme.
“In Somalia the numbers have now gone up to 2.5 million people. So we are talking about an extremely serious situation.
“I think as a world community we have recognised that when people are in this kind of desperate emergency situation that you have to be neutral and you have to be impartial in the way that you help people.”
Mr Mitchell urged the Ethiopian government to provide the latest estimates of those affected – particularly in the south – so that aid agencies could target their relief.
“For the response to be effective, we need the most up-to-date, accurate information on the level of need in Ethiopia,” he said.
“The country has made great strides in many areas over the past 30 years and this emergency relief will help to ensure that these gains are not eroded.”
After all stating above, it raises a question in my mind that. Why we Brits never get help as we do abroad as well as local in UK.
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IMF chief Strauss-Kahn questioned over ‘sex attack’
15 May 11 04:05
The head of the IMF, Dominique Strass-Kahn, is being questioned by New York police over an alleged sex attack on a hotel maid, say reports.
Mr Strauss-Kahn, 62, was taken off an Air France plane at John F Kennedy airport minutes before it left for Paris.
Police said he had not been charged.
The married former French finance minister is also a leading Socialist Party politician and is considered a possible candidate for the presidency.
He is due to attend a meeting of European Union finance ministers in Brussels on Monday to discuss the bailouts of Portugal and Greece.
A spokesman for New York’s Port Authority said they detained Mr Strauss-Kahn at the request of the New York Police Department (NYPD).
He is now being questioned by the NYPD, who said he was co-operating fully with their enquiries.
According to US media reports, the Frenchman was accused of a sexual attack on a maid at a Manhattan hotel.
Spokesman Paul J Browne said the allegations had been made by a 32-year-old woman who worked at the hotel, which has been identified as the Sofitel near Times Square.
The IMF had no immediate comment on the incident.
‘Error of judgement’
Mr Strauss-Kahn ran for leadership of the French Socialist Party in 2007 but eventually came second to Segolene Royale.
Later that year, he was appointed managing director of the International Monetary Fund.
Mr Strauss-Kahn has won praise for his stewardship of the IMF, which he has guided through difficult times including the recent world financial crisis.
But in 2008 he was investigated by the IMF board over his relationship with a female member of his staff.
The board ruled his actions “reflected a serious error of judgment” but that the relationship had been consensual. He apologised to IMF staff and his wife, French TV personality Anne Sinclair.
Mr Strauss-Kahn has not yet announced whether he intends to run in the 2012 French presidential elections but is widely expected to do so.
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IMF and World Bank
The IMF aims to preserve economic stability and to tackle – or ideally prevent – financial crises. Over time, its focus has switched to the developing world.
The World Bank’s predecessor – the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development – was set up to drive post-war recovery. Now, it is the world’s leading development organisation, working for growth and poverty reduction.
Owned by the governments of its 185 member states, the Bank channels loans and grants and advises low and middle-income countries.
The IMF is funded by a charge – known as a “quota” – paid by member nations. The quota is based on a country’s wealth and it determines voting power within the organisation; those making higher contributions have greater voting rights.
The Fund acts as a lender of last resort, disbursing its foreign exchange reserves for short periods to any member in difficulties.
The IMF and World Bank attempt to help countries or regions in economic turmoil.
In October 2008 the IMF activated an emergency funding scheme for countries facing economic distress resulting from the global financial crisis. As of August 2010, it had committed around $200 billion in lending to a number of economies affected by the crisis. The biggest borrowers were Hungary, Romania and Ukraine.
The eurozone crisis of 2010 also triggered extensive IMF intervention, including hefty bail-outs for countries such as Greece and Ireland.
Past interventions by the IMF have included providing funds for countries caught up in the 1997 Asian financial crisis, and loans to help South American countries such as Argentina and Brazil stave off debt default crises.
The IMF can also grant emergency loans following natural disasters; these have included the 2004 Asian tsunami.
The IMF and World Bank set up the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility in 1999. The scheme grants loans with conditions attached.
A strategy paper – called a Letter of Intent – specifies the elements of a country’s recovery plan. In return, loans are agreed as and when the targets laid down in the letter are met.
The IMF may demand reforms to promote good governance and to tackle corruption. The Fund maintains that a good climate for business is essential for growth and poverty reduction.
The World Bank funds specific infrastructure projects. One of its agencies, the International Development Association, focuses on the world’s poorest nations. The Bank has pledged its support for UN-backed Millenium Development Goals to reduce key indicators of poverty by 2015.
The Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC), launched by the IMF and the World Bank in 1996, aims to reduce the debt owed by the world’s poorest countries in return for economic reform.
States are eligible if their debt is unsustainable and cannot be tackled by traditional methods. The reforms they have to undertake often include privatisations.
By 2005 nearly 40 countries had started programmes under the HIPC. Debt relief kicks in when a country meets what is called the “decision point”. The end of the process is known as the “completion point”.
By the end of 2010, 32 countries had reached their completion points and were receiving full debt relief from the IMF and other creditors under proposals drawn up in 2005 by the finance ministers of the G8 group.
IMF managing director: Dominique Strauss-Kahn
Dominique Strauss-Kahn became head of the Fund in November 2007, taking over from Spain’s Rodrigo Rato.
Under an unwritten convention, the European Union nominates the head of the IMF, while the US appoints the World Bank head.
Mr Strauss-Kahn served as France’s finance and economy minister between 1997-1999. He is also a former professor of economics at the prestigious Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris.
During his time in government, Mr Strauss-Kahn cut the public deficit to qualify France for the euro and took steps that paved the way for the privatisation of a number of state-owned firms. In 2006, he sought the Socialist Party’s nomination for the French presidential election, but was not successful.
He has pledged to pursue reforms to make the IMF more relevant to developing countries.
Day-to-day, the IMF is overseen by a board of 24 executive directors. These are appointed or elected by member governments, or groups of member governments.
The board is headed by the managing director, assisted by three deputies.
World Bank president: Robert Zoellick
The US nominated Robert Zoellick to replace former US deputy defence secretary Paul Wolfowitz, who stepped down in June 2007 after becoming embroiled in a scandal over alleged favouritism.
Mr Zoellick’s previous experience of international finance included a spell as a senior executive at the Wall Street investment bank Goldman Sachs.
He also served as US Trade Representative from 2001 to 2005, in which capacity he completed negotiations to bring China and Taiwan into the World Trade Organisation and also pushed for a Central American Free Trade Agreement.
As Deputy Secretary of State under George W. Bush (2005-6), he was seen as a major architect of the US administration’s policies regarding China.
He also took a strong interest in the conflict in Sudan’s Darfur region, and was involved in negotiating the May 2006 peace accord between the government of Sudan and the Sudan Liberation Movement.
The Fund and the Bank serve as a rallying point for disparate causes – from environmentalists to anarchists – and meetings have occasionally been accompanied by violent street protests.
Protesters and critics are largely united in their distaste for globalisation: broadly speaking, the integration of world economies. They cite the exploitation of the poor and the environment and argue that freer trade threatens the livelihoods of millions of people.
The IMF has admitted that forcing developing countries to open their markets to foreign investors can increase the risk of financial crises.
Its former managing director Horst Koehler said in 2002 that the benefits of globalisation had not been equally shared. But he added that “the objective should not be less globalisation but more and better globalisation.”
Campaigners also argue that loans and long-term agreements can lock countries into aid dependency.
Developing countries – as well as some of Asia’s rapidly-growing economies – have voiced dissatisfaction with what they say is their lack of influence in the IMF and World Bank.
They have called for changes to the quota system in which votes in the IMF are weighted in line with member nations’ financial contributions.
Under this system, the US has 17% of the vote in the Fund, whereas India, with more than three times the population of the US, has less than one third. And because constitutional changes in the IMF require 85% of the vote, the US has a veto.